AHCC®Study results

Cancer

RESEACHRecurrence prevention After Curative Hepatectomy of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

AHCC® improved recurrence-free survival rate and hastened nutritional recovery in post-operative patients

Curative hepatectomy is the standard treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. It is very important for post-operative patients to prevent recurrence and recover their nutritional conditions. The results of this study showed that AHCC® intake helped lower the recurrence rate by 10 % compared to the historical data. Based on the result, AHCC® could be beneficial for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma as a safe adjuvant therapy after surgery.


Toshiya Kamiyama Integrative Cancer Therapies, 21: 15347354211073066 (2022)

Clinical study

Design: non-randomized open label study
Subject: 29 patients after curative hepatectomy of hepatocellular carcinoma
Dose: AHCC® 3 g/day
Endpoints: recurrence-free survival rate and nutritional recovery

Results

AHCC® intake for two years after curative hepatectomy lowered the recurrence rate by 10 % compared to the historical data and hastened recovery without any adverse event.

*The specified clinical trial in Japan (approval no. jRCTs011180006)

RESEACHPrognosis improvement in postoperative hepatocellular carcinoma patients

AHCC® extended the no-recurrence period and increased the overall survival rate.

After removing cancer by surgery, it is very important to have a good prognosis*1 and prevent recurrence.
Postoperative Hepatocellular Carcinoma patients who kept taking AHCC® showed longer overall survival duration and lower recurrence rate than those who went without AHCC®. These results suggest that AHCC® improves the prognosis after surgery.


Yoichi Matsui et al., Journal of Hepatology, 37(1): 78-86 (2002)

Clinical study

Design: A prospective cohort study
Subject: 269 patients with postoperative hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)
Groups: AHCC® (n=113) and Control (non-AHCC®) (n=156)
Dose: AHCC® 3 g/day
Endpoints: Recurrence rate, overall survival duration after surgery, and liver function-related parameters for 9 years

Results

AHCC® intake increased overall survival rate and extended no recurrence period, suggesting that AHCC® might ameliorate postoperative prognosis.

*1: Prognosis: medical prospect of survival and recovery from a disease anticipated from the current status of progression and effectiveness of the treatments.

RESEACHReduction of side effects of adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer

AHCC® alleviated neutropenia, depletion of white blood cells, common side effects of adjuvant chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is a common treatment for cancer therapy; however, its side effects are associated with reduction of anticancer drugs and discontinuation of the treatment, frequently resulting in unsatisfactory outcome from chemotherapy.
In the study that examined whether AHCC® alleviates side effects of adjunctive chemotherapy for breast cancer, AHCC® improved neutropenia and decreased the use of antineutropenia agents.
It is expected that AHCC® is available to adequately exert the efficacy of chemotherapy.


Sho Hangai et al., The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 19(11): 905-910 (2013)

Clinical study

Design: A retrospective cohort study
Subject: 41 patients with breast cancer
Groups: AHCC® (n=18) and Control (non-AHCC®) (n=23)
Dose: AHCC® 3 g/day
Endpoints: Adverse event rate, neutrophile count, and average number of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) usage

Results

Supplementation of AHCC® significantly improved neutropenia and reduced the use frequency of G-CSF, suggesting that AHCC® might contribute to continue adjuvant chemotherapy with an effective treatment intensity by alleviating its side effects.

RESEACHSuppression of cancer stem cell*2 proliferation

AHCC® suppressed proliferation of cancer stem cells and increased the number of substances that inhibit infiltration*3 and metastasis*4 of cancer

Although cancer is in remission attributable to cancer treatments, a risk of recurrence never disappears. The risk is one of the biggest stresses for patients and their family.
This study investigates if AHCC® inhibits the proliferation and metastasis of cancer stem cells and the progenitor cells, which induce recurrence and metastasis.
The results demonstrate that AHCC® reduces the number of mammospheres caused by tumor cell growth and increases factors to suppress cancer metastasis, expecting that supplementation with AHCC® contributes to decreasing cancer stem cells and preventing cancer recurrence and metastasis.

Émilie A Graham et al., Cancer Biology & Therapy, 18(10): 765-774 (2017)

Non-clinical study (in vitro)

Cells: Cancer stem cells and mammospheres derived from cancer stem cells
Concentrations: AHCC® 0, 2, and 4 mg/mL
Evaluation: Formation number of mammospheres and expression level of miRNA

Results

AHCC® significantly reduced the number of mammospheres and upregulated miR-335 expression, suggesting its possibility to contribute in prevention of cancer recurrence and metastasis.
Data are shown as means±standard error of the mean (SEM).

*2:Cancer stem cell(s): cancer cells with abilities of self-replication and tumor formation, and resistance to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
*3, 4:Infiltration and metastasis: Movements of cancer cells spreading to neighboring tissues and migrating to other organs through blood flow and other factors​

RESEACHCombination with Cancer Immunotherapy

AHCC® is expected to promote the anti-tumor effects of immune checkpoint inhibitors.

Although cancer is in remission attributable to cancer treatments, a risk of recurrence never disappears. The risk is one of the biggest stresses for patients and their family.
This study investigates if AHCC® inhibits the proliferation and metastasis of cancer stem cells and the progenitor cells, which induce recurrence and metastasis.
The results demonstrate that AHCC® reduces the number of mammospheres caused by tumor cell growth and increases factors to suppress cancer metastasis, expecting that supplementation with AHCC® contributes to decreasing cancer stem cells and preventing cancer recurrence and metastasis.

出典: Insoo Kang (Yale University, USA), et al., Frontiers in Immunology, 13: 875872 (2022)​

Non-clinical study (in vitro)

Animal: mice inoculated with mouse colon cancer cell MC38 at day 0.
Groups: AHCC® (n=6) and control (n=6)
Dose and period: AHCC® (18 mg/mouse) from day 3 to day 21~27.
anti-mouse CTLA-4 antibody (50 mg/mouse) at day 14 and 17
anti-mouse PD-1 antibody (50 mg/mouse) at day 14 and 17
Evaluation: tumor volume, and expression levels of tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells-related molecules

Results

It was revealed that the combination of AHCC® and immune checkpoint inhibitors activated T cells and increased expression of the cytotoxic molecule granzyme B and the cell proliferation marker Ki-67 by tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells. As a result, increase in tumor volume could be suppressed effectively.